Monday, March 02, 2015
In learning we all yearn for something that can really hold sustained attention, induce intense emotion, allow learning by doing, provide relevant context, enable transfer, increase retention, provide cognitive swap and above all, allow you to do things that are impossible in the real world. These are just seven principles in learning that suggest it has huge potential. Here's a brief selection.
But what makes technology based learning fly is its cultural acceptance. The technology is always ahead of the more sluggish sociology. We’re all now comfortable with search on the internet, Wikipedia, hyperlinked content, learning from YouTube, TED and Khan videos, contributing within a network of professionals on social media. Whenever a sustained, irreversible, global, consumer base develops, learning applications follow.
This is why the Facebook purchase of Oculus Rift was sosignificant. They were first to get on their racing bike but there’s a peloton forming and the race constantly changes as new challengers emerge from the pack. Since that $2.3 billion dollar announcement, the other industry giants have gone goggle-eyed and pushed their R&D teams to get something to market soon. Samsung, Microsoft and others know that this shift from 2D to 3D may be a huge opportunity, as a new medium emerges. That doesn’t happen very often – paper print, radio, film, TV, 2d web…… what’s next?
Valve’s top ten features
Now another big consortium has emerged as pacemaker – Valve & HTC. This is big news for the following 10 reasons:
1. HTC are making the screen
2. Two 1200x1080 displays
3. Refresh rate of 90 frames a second
4. Great field of view
5. Stem VR base station for avatar control (within 15x15 ft room)
6. Wireless HTC controllers for each hand (gloves?)
7. Controller’s positions tracked
8. Headset is very light
9. Google, HBO on board
10. Release promised in 2015
This is a big step up from the Oculus Rift DK2 with a significant technology difference. The Valve headset contains cameras that track your movement, rather than the Oculus’s cameras tracking the headset. It’s the Oculus tracking in reverse, although it still has the accelerometer and gyroscope.
There’s a pre-release video, that’s not so great, but the launch is this week (2-5 March) at the Game Developer’s Conference. Their promise – developer’s kit this Spring, then release ‘holiday 2015’, by which I take to be Christmas.
One thing most vendors realise is that this is just about gaming. The games market is huge and can drive this forward but the entertainment, education and health markets are bigger. This is not a gadget – it’s a new medium, applicable in almost every domain you can imagine. HBO are in on the Valve act, NBA in on Oculus - so expect some Game of Thrones VR and court-side viewing on launch. TV and film may never be the same again.
This is great news, but let’s not get too carried away. This is a long race, not a velodrome sprint. Competition has driven this forward. Consumer VR will be here, as I thought, this year. It all comes down to marketing, price and quality of the product. As HTC CEO Peter Chou announced when showing the Vive for the first time on stage “We believe virtual reality will totally transform the way we interact with the world. It will become a mainstream experience for general consumers. The possibilities are limitless.”
Some videos showing VR in education:
VR and 'presence'
Teach history with VR
Teach physics with VR
Teach biology with VR
Amazing reaction on Oculus
Saturday, February 28, 2015
What can we learn from the Million dollar teacher?
Theory and practice
Richard's work does surface some important pieces of learning theory that fly in the face of those who see teaching as a craft, not to be polluted by science, research or learning theories. He teaches biology which, at A-level, has some pretty complex language, structures and processes, primarily in molecular biology. Rather than stand and talk at his sitting students, hoping that this stuff will stick, he 'elaborates' the concepts so that they really do stick, in the practical sense of retention and recall. In short, he uses some pretty basic psychology and learning theory to blend his courses.
What does he do? Well it’s neither new nor radical. It’s a ‘blend’ of experiments, videos, models, role play, games, poems, songs and dance to make his lessons more memorable for students. He refuses to just lecture, although he does include some straight talks in his teaching. Cleverly, for some complex processes he recognizes that role-playing those processes will result in higher retention and recall. For example, in his songs and dances, they wear coloured bibs to represent chromosomes and DNA neucleotides. In his DNA Boogie, the structure is made explicit by becoming part of the molecule and in the Meiosis Square Dances, students act out how chromosomes are shared between cells as tissue grow. The students become the chemical structures, then move and interact with each other to represent what happens in that biological process. He claims that, “years down the line they can still recite the songs, even after 15 years”.
What is actually going on here? In terms of learning theory his method could be summed up as the use of blended learning that includes lots of ‘elaboration’ to improve retention and recall. He is optimising his blend, matching elaboration techniques with the learning outcomes. For simple naming the learners stand and chant the structure using their bodies and arms as cues. For processes, they line up and move around. For chemical interactions, they start to interact with each other in groups. This is not blended teaching, it’s blended learning. There's a difference.
What helps here is a simple understanding of Declarative (semantic & episodic) and Nondeclarative (skills, priming, conditioning) memory. Put simply, the difference between knowing that and knowing how. Once you understand these different forms of memory you can blend more successfully, even using one form of memory to help another. Elaboration, along with spaced practice is little understood in education but it can be incredibly useful for novice learners, who, despite what we think of the curriculum, do have to retain and recall large amounts of knowledge across a wide range of subjects.
Body as a cue factory
In singing songs and using your own body as a “basic memory trigger’ Richard Spencer is using the theory of ‘cues’ to improve memory. This theory was expanded by Tulving and others to show that recall is aided by ‘cues’ which are a bit like the handles on suitcases, in that they can be used to haul out larger amounts of content. Cues can be things that you already know, such as your own body, episodic memories such as the route you take to school or the layout of your own house. In particular, the body can be used for a huge amount of any biology curriculum. The advantage of using your own body is that this is the one thing you can take with you into any exam. It’s a travelling cue factory.
Learn by doing
Then there's a well researched area, that is largely ignored in teaching practice, learning by doing, The simple idea that ‘doing’ results in deep processing, by using other channels and forms of memory, is well known. Yet we insist on getting students to sit down for hours on end while we ply them with information that appeals to only one form of memory – semantic. What Richard is doing here is linking semantic information ‘words, concepts and processes’ to songs and dances that act as cues for recalling that semantic knowledge.
An additional benefit of Richard's blended, elaborative, cued approach, is that the learners can go off and practice these songs and dances themselves, even if it is just recall and rehearsal in their heads. They offer ample opportunity for rehearsal and practice, leading to reinforcement into long-term memory and better recall.
Richard is not charismatic, he’s enthusiastic. In fact he’s so ordinary, if you watch the videos, it all seems a little gauche. As he says “It’s not about creating a celebrity teacher but good teaching…. getting people to talk about teaching globally”. But the key issue here is that it’s not about him, it’s about what the learners DO. That’s why I think these prizes are misplaced. This is not about great teachers, it’s about better learning. This is not about blended teaching, it’s about blended learning by DOING, with a hefty dose of elaboration – well known and researched topics. The problem is the lack of good theory informing practice and relying on excuses, such as 'teaching is a craft or practice'. This simpely begs the question - what practices? Wouldn’t it be better, not to send Richard careering round schools, teaching other teachers his dances, but to capture this stuff and share it through online CPD? To this end I’ve tried to collate a few links that may be useful.
DNA Boogie dance
Meiosis Square Dance
For a step by step explanation of the dance:
Friday, February 27, 2015
Holy shit – swearing in conference presentations works!
If you know me, or have heard me speak at conferences, you’ll know that I’m partial to the odd curse word. This is never planned, it’s part of my everyday speech. I should add that I’m Scottish, which far from being an excuse, is simply a description of a culture more attuned to swearing than more mild-mannered England. Billy Connolly, a genius when it comes to oral delivery, could never have come from England. Ireland maybe, England never.
Let me start with some science. I’m not saying this study is definitive but there is at least one study, with a control, that shows the beneficial effect of swear words in presentations. A speech about 'lowering tuition fees' was delivered to there groups :
Group 1: Used ‘Damn’ at the start
Group 2: Used 'Damn' at the end
Group 3. No swearing at all
The swear word at the start or end had the most effect (defined as the ‘persuasiveness’ of the speech). It also enhanced the perceived intensity of the speaker. Interestingly, it neither enhanced or damaged their credibility.
Why I swear
I don;t swear because this study gives me an excuse to juice up presentation style. I occasionally swear because I’ve always felt in my gut that swear words add something special – they’re the magic dust of language.
First, when unexpected, they jolt people to attention. Who would deny that this is useful in the anodyne and often mind-numbingly ,boring world of lectures, conferences and presentations. Second, attention is a necessary condition for learning – it aids retention.
Third, they have meanings which other words do not have. Shakespeare is full of filth and swear words. When I described Gove as someone who fitted his job like a ‘prick in a codpiece’, I felt as that this was a pretty good analogy.
Fourth, they’re emotive terms and if, like me, you argue that lectures and talks are hopeless on the transmission of knowledge or skills, but strong when affective, attitudinal or emotive, then they can play a vital, emotive role.
Fifth, it’s time we started to puncture the pomposity and break the sheer boredom we witness at conferences and lectures. I’m not fond of those that cower behind lecterns, reading from pre-typed notes. Above all, I’m not fond of being bored. Which of us has never experienced the excruciating, almost painful levels of boredom at lectures and conferences?
Sixth, if you’re ‘offended’ by the occasional swear word, I’m offended by your lack of sensitivity toward freedom of speech and the cultural/linguistic norms of others. I find the censorship of ordinary language offensive.
Seventh, I don't give a fuck.
Having often sworn in presentations, I’ve only once received blow-back (you can see it on the Twitter feed here). Note that I was roundly tweckled for daring to suggest that lectures are an ineffective form of teaching (how radical). All I can say is that this talk led to me talking on this subject for a number of years ar universities all over the world. The YouTube versions reached over 25,000 people, and on the whole, it stimulated a pile of debate.
My friend, who was at the time a Board Member of Channel 4, told me of an instance of that game, where you have to get a pre-agreed word into your conference speech. At the annual Edinburgh TV Festival he told me of a speaker he knew who had to say ‘cunt’, which he did by asking the audience what words were banned by the BBC. See what I did there – swore at the start and the end – that’s science folks.
Friday, February 13, 2015
The problem with Maths is ‘English’ - 'twenty' examples
Maths is difficult to learn and hard to teach. But one BIG problem, which few parents fully understand, is language – the use of English.
Jack, do you know what volume means?
Explain it to me.
Ok, it’s the button on the remote control that makes your TV go louder.
English is irregular
English is a magpie language, highly irregular and puts more load on working memory and that leads to more errors. Beyond working memory it is important to know that irregular terms have to be stored separately in memory, regular forms don’t have to be. This extra work, and extra steps, places an extra load on working memory, which has a limited capacity in terms of ‘registers’ and manipulation within these registers.
1. Number words
Chinese (Japanese & Korean are similar) has just nine number names from which larger numbers are generated, compared to English, which has more than two dozen unique number words.
2. Words shorter
Chinese speakers can easily memorise this sequence of numbers 7,3,5,6,9,8,4, compared to only 50% of English speakers. Why? Our working memory has to cope with words that are longer. Their number words are short, sharp sounds, like si and qi, not long-winded words.
3. 11 & 12
They say ‘ten-one, ten-two’, rather than the unique eleven and twelve. ‘Eleven’ and ‘twelve’ come from ‘ain-lif’ and ‘twa-lif’, meaning one-left and two-left (after counting up to ten) in Old German.
4. 13 & 15
English number names are more irregular than you’d think. For example, we say fourteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, and nineteen. Wouldn’t it be easier if we also had oneteen, twoteen, threeteen, and fiveteen?
5. 20, 30, 40, 50
In counting by tens, we have a similar discontinuity. There are sixty, seventy, eighty and ninety but there are the irregular twenty, thirty, forty and fifty.
6. Teen reversal
With two figure numbers, if we keep counting up, the numbers above twenty will have the tens first (e.g., fifty-six), whereas for the numbers below twenty we put the ones first (e.g. thirteen).
7. Place value
So, rather than ‘twenty eight’, they say ‘two-ten-eight’. This hurdle for English speakers is ‘place-reversal’ as the English language reverses mathematical place: six-teen rather than ten-six, which causes problems when dealing with double-digit calculations. Partition, or breaking numbers down into parts then adding, subtracting, multiplying etc. is much easier if ‘making a ten’ is easy linguistically.
8. Hundreds & thousands
Take the number one hundred and four. The child may know one hundred is 100 and that four is 4, then say that one hundred and four is 1004. Similarly with one thousand and eleven and so on. This is not a problem in some other languages.
9. Addition & subtraction
In adding eighteen plus seventeen in your head you have to reverse both numbers first then add them. If you ask children to add seven hundred & forty eight and forty two, in English, they will need to convert those words to numbers (748 + 42) and then do the addition. In Japanese, this would sound like, “seven-hundreds; four-tens; eight plus four-tens; two.” There are far fewer things to interpret, hold in working memory then manipulate as ‘place’ is reflected in the structure of the language.
10. Numbers are not just numbers
I have a two baths of water at 25 degrees centigrade. What is the temperature if I pour a bath of water into the other? Some children will say 50 degrees. Why do kids double when they're meant to square? Because that little number hovering up tere is a '2'. Confusing or what?
11. Division & multiplication
Multiplication means things get ‘bigger’ and division means things get ‘smaller’ – right? No. if I multiply ten by a fraction the numer gets smaller and if I divide ten by a half the number gets bigger. It’s easy to teach surface maths, that teach real maths. This is just one of many examples where you have to ‘see’ the problem.
Take the fraction four ninths in English, the same number in Chinese is ‘one part out of nine, take four’. The language literally unpacks the fraction, this makes the fraction not only easier to understand but also makes the addition, subtraction and other manipulations of fractions easier.
The Finnish language has a lot of words which are easy to understand, if you're a native, even if you don't know the word originally. An example ss the shape ‘Hexagon’ in Finnish is ’kuusikulmio’, which means ‘a shape with six corners’. This allows the child to imagine and recall the shape with greater ease. In English, we’re lumbered with obscure Greek and Latinate prefixes.
Maths may seem like an exact language but its ‘conventional’ use of alphabetical letters can be confusing:
a,b,c tend to be constants (fixed values)
A,B,C points on geometrical figures
i,j,k,l,m,n tend to be integers for counting
x,y,z unknown variables
This can cause confusion in the interpretation of problems and geometric images images.
15. Share & straight
These two words seem straightforward but research shows that children often interpret these words differently when learning maths. If I said ‘Ten sweets are shared between Rob and Jack but Jack has four more than Rob’ responses such as ‘But they’re sharing so they must have 5 each’ are not uncommon. Similarly, when children hear the word ‘straight’ they may interpret this as just vertical and horizontal and not regard a sloping line s straight. These linguistic traps are difficult for adults to spot but easy for children to fall into.
You can be asked to: find, calculate, work-out, how many
Addition: Add, make, total, plus, addition, make, sum, altogether, fewer
Subtraction: Subtract, take-away, deduct, minus, leave, less, difference between
Multiplication: Multiply, by, times
Division: Divide, into
Surveys, where children voice their difficulties have uncovered many problems around the use of these terms for mathematical problems.
17. Literacy hits maths
Low levels of literacy may lead to poor or no understanding of the often convoluted problems that mats teachers and textbooks set in maths. Most are unlikely to ever have been heard by the child before, many using language that is beyond their reading age.
18. Poor, wordy test items
Many maths problems, set in exams, are more tests of complex literacy than maths. This is why over reliance on word problems may hold children back as they fail to untangle the linguistic traps that are inherent in English and poor assessment items. Too many obscure, word-based, test items involve unpacking tense, comparison and change models that are beyond the actual testing of addition or subtraction.
19. Vicious circle
Asian language speakers, from an early age, get more success from their efforts, This creates a virtuous circle, where learners get quick results and feel as though numbers are easily manipulated. Compare that to the vicious circle of English learners, who have to cope with the irregularity of the language problems and cognitive overload.
20. Culture of ability not effort
One last, but seriously fatal, cultural difference may be the fact that some cultures see failure in maths as a lack of effort, not ability. We have a culture that all too often uses the language of ‘talent and ability’ not ‘effort’.
Appearances are deceptive in maths. For most children it seems like a subject full of traps, deliberately set to fool you. The problems set are often badly worded, convoluted and unrealistic and often not enough variety of problems are used. This is exactly why teachers need professional training, as the effective teaching of maths needs a deep understanding of what has to be learned.